International acclaim from historians and authors

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A Republican President Who Risked His Career to Support Mexico

The Dallas Morning News published a very good commentary August 25, 2019, by historian/educator Michael Hogan explaining why educators and students should discuss historical relations between the USA and Mexico. Here’s the full text:

At a time when much of border politics revolves around inflammatory rhetoric and divisive arguments, including talk of a “Hispanic invasion,” it would be useful to reflect on an earlier period of U.S.-Mexico relations and a Republican president who had a quite different view of that country and its people than today’s incumbent.

Few American students know that the 1846 invasion of Mexico by the U.S. deprived Mexico of almost half of its territory and resulted in the formation of several U.S. states, including California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada, as well as parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming and Colorado. Few know that the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which officially ended the war in 1848, offered automatic citizenship to Mexicans in that captured territory, but the U.S. reneged on that provision.

When Abraham Lincoln was a first-term congressman from Illinois, he risked his political career by standing up in the House of Representatives and accusing President James Polk of invading Mexican territory without provocation and then misleading Congress to declare war on that country by claiming that “American blood was shed on American soil.” In his remarks, Lincoln presented several “spot resolutions” asserting that any blood shed was on Mexican soil, and that the U.S. was the aggressor.

It did not go down well with Polk and his supporters. Lincoln was accused of giving aid and support to the enemy. Newspapers referred to him as “spotty Lincoln.” Lincoln’s Whig party would lose its majority in the House in 1848, and he would be defeated for the Senate race a few years later.

Lincoln was not the only prominent person who objected to the U.S. invasion. General Ulysses S. Grant, who was an Army captain and participated in the invasion, called it the “most unjust war ever waged by a stronger nation against a weaker” and considered resigning his commission. Henry David Thoreau wrote his famous essay “On Civil Disobedience” and went to jail in Concord, Mass., for refusing to pay taxes that he felt would go to support the war in Mexico. Former President John Quincy Adams was also strongly opposed. But Lincoln risked the most, and persisted well after the rest fell silent, despite warnings from his law partner and members of his own party.

Fourteen years later, in 1861, shortly after his surprise election to the presidency as a compromise Republican candidate, Lincoln welcomed Matías Romero, the Mexican ambassador, to his home in Springfield, Ill. The 24-year-old Romero was the first foreign ambassador that Lincoln met and entertained before his inauguration on March 4. The personal note Lincoln gave to Romero offered “sincere wishes for the happiness, prosperity and liberty of yourself, your government and its people.” Dated Jan. 21, 1861, it is now on display in the Chicago History Museum.

In Washington D.C., the president and first lady became friends with Romero. After France invaded Mexico in 1863 and imposed the Archduke Maximilian on the throne, Lincoln covertly provided assistance to the exiled republican government of Benito Juárez. It was done secretly because Lincoln was afraid that if the French found out they might join forces with the Confederacy to defeat the Union. He and Mary Todd Lincoln introduced the young Romero (now an asylum seeker with no official status) to prominent bankers and investors so that he was able to raise over $14 million to arm and supply the Mexican Republican Army and defeat the French.

Lincoln and Juárez could not have been more different physically. Lincoln was 6 feet 4; Juárez 4 feet 6. One of Anglo-Scot stock, the other a Zapotec Indian. Yet they were both successful lawyers, both confirmed republicans, both committed to human rights, and both struggling to unite opposing forces within their countries. It is thanks to Lincoln that the U.S. is not a divided federation, and thanks to Juárez that Mexico is not a repressive monarchy.

There are statues of Lincoln in El Paso and Mexico City today, and he is the second most beloved U.S. president in Mexico. It is on his legacy that so many years of the “Good Neighbor Policy” pledged by Harry Truman during his 1948 visit to Mexico were based. During that visit to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the end of the war of with Mexico, Truman laid a wreath on the tomb of the Niños Heroes, the young cadets who gave their lives to protect that Mexican flag against the Yankee invaders. Their deaths marked a shameful episode which Lincoln acknowledged and sought to remedy, and one which Truman confirmed in his reconciliatory gesture.

A failure to teach the full and complex 19th century history of the U.S. and Mexico in U.S. classrooms has resulted in ignorance that helps feed anti-Mexico prejudice. Some textbooks today use terms such as “Westward Expansion,” which obscure how and why the U.S. used its military superiority to acquire nearly half of Mexico as a result of the war.

Most historians also gloss over Polk’s actions and how he misled Congress. The truth is in the Congressional Record and in battlefield journals, some of them stored in archives in both the U.S. and Mexico. To help educators and students learn from archival documents, the Lincoln and Mexico Project offers supplemental classroom materials including free lesson plans to interested teachers. In Texas, educators in 43 schools have received the materials for the coming academic year.

According to the College Board, each year about 500,000 students take the Advanced Placement U.S. history course. Recently, the board has approved teaching Lincoln “spot resolutions” as part of the course. Another 4 million 11th-graders are required to take some other form of U.S. history class each year.

Imagine the impact this next generation could have on the country if these students were to share this actual history, and what a fine model they would have of a Republican president who stood up for his neighbors in Mexico instead of castigating them, and who made amends for the expansionist exploits of the past.

In the final analysis, it is not facts that cause violence, but rhetoric based on ignorance. Much of the polarizing political words the president and others often use can be traced to a factually muddled 2012 blog post about the so-called Mexican invasion promoted by political commentator Pat Buchanan, who failed three times to win the Republican presidential nomination.

The fact is that the bulk of migration to our southern border today is people from Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras fleeing gang violence, agricultural damage and economic exploitation by corporations dating back centuries. But it was likely inflammatory rhetoric and ignorance that inspired the Dallas-area shooter to target Mexican-Americans and Mexican citizens during back-to-school shopping in El Paso. Hopefully, we can stop incidents like that from re-occurring by taking steps today to see that our children know the facts of history.

Finally, the recent recognition by the Texas Board of Education that contributions of Mexican-Americans to the culture and the history of Texas need to be included in the curriculum is another important step that is long overdue. Children need to see their Latino neighbors as significant contributors to the culture and economy of this state and the nation. It is a modest beginning but an essential one that will change mere tolerance to abiding respect.

Michael Hogan is a former professor of international relations at the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara and emeritus humanities chair at the American School Foundation. His new book is Abraham Lincoln and Mexico. He wrote this column for The Dallas Morning News.

How the Mexican-American War Began

Texas-Mexico border 1846

Map courtesy of Wikicommons

History has many examples of one nation trying to impose its will on other countries. One example is the Mexican-American War where many historians often ignore or distort details of what led the US Congress to declare war against Mexico on May 13, 1846.

After his election in 1844, on a platform that included Texas statehood, President Polk was determined to acquire the ports of San Francisco and San Diego along with vast portions of Mexico from the Pacific Ocean to Texas. However, Mexico repeatedly refused his offer of $25 million to buy California.

Official maps at that time showed the Texas border between the US and Mexico was the Nueces River that emptied into the Gulf of Mexico at Corpus Christi. In January of 1846, President Polk ordered US troops at Corpus Christi to move more than 100 miles south to the Rio Grande river where they began building fortifications that became Fort Brown near what is now Brownsville. Polk and his Secretary of War William Marcy believed that Mexico would consider the troop movement and fortifications an invasion of its territory and would feel pressured to comply with the expansionist desires of the United States to avoid further military action.

Polk had drafted a declaration of war and he called his cabinet members together on Saturday, May 8, to consult with them. At the end of the meeting, he decided to send his war message to the Congress on Tuesday, May 11. But later that same evening, he received word that 52 US troops had engaged a Mexican cavalry unit after entering a Mexican ranch on the Rio Grande on April 25. Several Americans were killed and a few were wounded in the short skirmish that lasted until early the next day, and which became known as The Thornton Affair for the name of the commanding officer.

The president quickly revised his war message to include his view about the significance of the battle, and sent the message to Congress on Monday, May 10. It asserted that Mexico “…has invaded our territory and shed blood of Americans upon the American soil.” The House expedited a war resolution and approved it on May 13 with only 14 dissenting votes, and the Senate concurred in a 40-2 vote. The US and Mexico were officially at war.

Declaring war against Mexico divided the country, as evidenced in leading newspapers of the time. Walt Whitman editorialized in support of the war, and volunteers responded to advertisements and posters stating the US government was offering recruits generous pay and 160 acres of land.

Mexican War(1)

Some prominent political leaders, including John Quincy Adams, opposed the war. Anti-war organizations denounced the war, particularly after news of the seven-day US naval bombardment at Veracruz that killed hundreds of civilians. After that incident, Henry David Thoreau refused to pay taxes to support the war, went to jail, and later published his famous essay “On Civil Disobedience.”

As a first-term congressman opposed to the war, Abraham Lincoln researched and presented his famous “Spot Resolutions” in Congress in 1847 and risked his political career by accusing Polk of lying to Congress about the basis for declaring war. Several times he challenged Polk to show him the spot where American blood was shed, implying that it was on Mexican soil and that the US soldiers were invaders. However, by then, Mexico City had already fallen to US troops and all that remained was a formal surrender and signing the Treaty of Guadalupe in February 1848 that officially established a new border stretching from San Diego to the mouth of the Rio Grande.

Ulysses S. Grant, an Army captain in the invasion and subsequent occupation of Mexico, used his memoirs to call the Mexican-American War “the most unjust war ever waged against a weaker nation by a stronger.”

Today’s textbooks use terms such as “Westward Expansion” and “Manifest Destiny” to obscure how and why the US used its military superiority to acquire nearly half of Mexico as a result of the war. The conquered Mexican territory included what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, along with parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Kansas. The US paid Mexico $18.5 million as reparations, less than what it offered for California before the war.

Most historians also gloss over Polk’s actions and how he misled the Congress. The truth is in the Congressional Record and in battlefield journals, some of them stored in archives in both the USA and Mexico. Only a few historians have tried to research the documents and present the facts.

The book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico by Michael Hogan, an historian/ educator in Guadalajara, Mexico, presents these facts and includes many of these archival documents in their entirety so educators and the public can understand the factual history of how the Mexican-American War began. It’s a great way to learn from the past and stimulate discussion of ways to move forward in relations between the USA and Mexico.

The print version of Dr. Hogan’s 2016 book is in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and in university and public libraries across the USA, and even in foreign countries. In the past two years, the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) has sent free print copies of the book to all members of the US Senate and distributed free copies of the eBook version to more than 400 educators in the USA, Mexico, and other countries as supplemental classroom material. Educators can request the free eBook by writing to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org.

More than 400 schools now have “Abraham Lincoln and Mexico” book


Historian/ Educator Michael Hogan with his Advanced Placement US History class that inspired him to research and write his book “Abraham Lincoln and Mexico”

During the past year, educators in more than 400 schools have received a copy of Abraham Lincoln and Mexico from the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) as supplemental classroom material. 

The book by historian/ educator Michael Hogan examines historical relations between the USA and Mexico in the 1840s-1860s by focusing on Abraham Lincoln’s support for Mexico as congressman and president. It’s great way for educators to stimulate classroom discussion because it includes archival documents that contain facts textbooks often distort or marginalize.

“It is an excellent resource for use in the classroom,” stated Professor Megan Lange of Santa Ana College in her online H-FedHist review praising the inclusion of primary source documents and Internet links for endnotes. “At just under two hundred pages of text Abraham Lincoln and Mexico is concise but minces no words and, in an era of ugly political rhetoric and wall building at the border, is ever so timely.”

LAMP provides the award-winning 2016 eBook version to classroom teachers at no cost for educational purposes, and to evaluate the content before ordering paid print versions for social studies courses. Several high schools and colleges are already using the book, and some high school educators have also requested the three-act student play as additional material along with lesson plans based on the book and the play. If you know an educator who might be interested in obtaining the free eBook without obligation, just send an email to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org and we’ll follow up.

In the USA, the book is already in 390 schools in 39 states plus the District of Columbia. It’s also in another 22 international schools in Mexico, Bangladesh, Belarus, China, Egypt, Germany, Pago Pago, and South Korea. Here’s the list of schools with the book as of Feb. 28, 2019:



  1. Hoover High School, Hoover AL
  2. Judson College, Marion AL
  3. Lawrence County High School, Moulton AL
  4. Montgomery Public Schools, Montgomery AL
  5. Spain Park High School, Hoover AL
  6. Tuscaloosa County School District, Tuscaloosa AL
  7. Valley Head High School, Valley Head AL


  1. Academy of Tucson High School, Tucson AZ
  2. Girls Leadership Academy of Arizona, Phoenix AZ
  3. Horizon High School, Scottsdale AZ
  4. Rancho Solano Preparatory School, Scottsdale AZ
  5. Scottsdale Unified School District, Scottsdale AZ


  1. Bauxite Public Schools, Bauxite AR
  2. Bryant High School, Bryant AR
  3. Hope Public Schools, Hope AR
  4. Pulaski Academy, Little Rock AR


  1. Abraham Lincoln High School, San Diego CA
  2. Alice Margaret M. Bloomfield High School, Huntington Park CA
  3. Apple Valley Unified School District, Apple Valley CA
  4. BASIS Independent Silicon Valley, San Jose CA
  5. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona CA
  6. California State University-Channel Islands, Camarillo CA
  7. California State University-Dominguez Hills, Carson CA
  8. California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton CA
  9. California State University-Long Beach, Long Beach CA
  10. California State University-San Bernardino, San Bernardino CA
  11. California State University-San Marcos, San Marcos CA
  12. Chadwick School, Palos Verdes CA
  13. Chestnut High School, Huron CA
  14. Consumnes River College, Sacramento CA
  15. Coronado High School, Coronado CA
  16. Crestview Preparatory School, La Cañada CA
  17. Da Vinci Schools, Los Angeles CA
  18. JCS High School Academy, Temecula CA
  19. John F. Kennedy High School, Granada Hills CA
  20. La Quinta High School, La Quinta CA
  21. La Sierra University, Riverside CA
  22. Legend College Preparatory, Cupertino CA
  23. Long Beach College, Long Beach CA
  24. Long Beach Unified School District, Long Beach CA
  25. Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies, West Los Angeles
  26. Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles CA
  27. Los Angeles Valley College, Valley Glen CA
  28. Luther Burbank High School, Sacramento CA
  29. Making Waves Academy, Richmond CA
  30. Maranantha High School, Pasadena CA
  31. Marin Academy, San Rafael CA
  32. Marymount California University, Rancho Palos Verdes CA
  33. Mira Costa College, Oceanside CA
  34. Mira Mesa College, San Diego CA
  35. Mission Vista High School, Oceanside CA
  36. Moreno Valley Unified School District, Moreno Valley CA
  37. Newark Unified School District, Newark CA
  38. Northgate High School, Walnut Creek CA
  39. Palomar College, San Marcos CA
  40. Parajo Valley Unified School District, Watsonville CA
  41. Pasadena Independent School District, Pasadena CA
  42. Pinewood School, Los Altos CA
  43. Quarry Lane School, Dublin CA
  44. Rolling Hills Preparatory School, San Pedro CA
  45. Sacred Heart Schools, Atherton CA
  46. San Diego State University, San Diego CA
  47. San Diego Unified Public Schools District, San Diego CA
  48. Santa Ana College, Santa Ana CA
  49. Spirit Christian Academy, Tustin CA
  50. South East High School, South Gate CA
  51. Stockton Unified School District, Stockton CA
  52. Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista CA
  53. The Episcopal School of Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA
  54. The Webb Schools, Claremont CA
  55. Tilden Preparatory School, Albany CA
  56. Urban School of San Francisco, San Francisco CA
  57. Watsonville High School, Watsonville CA
  58. Woodbury University, Burbank CA


  1. Cherry Creek Schools, Greenwood Village CO
  2. Eaglecrest High School, Aurora CO
  3. Falcon School District 49, Colorado Springs CO
  4. Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs CO
  5. Poudre School District, Fort Collins CO
  6. Valor Christian High School, Highlands Ranch CO


  1. Amity Regional High School, Woodbridge CT
  2. Avon Old Farms School, Avon CT
  3. Berlin Public Schools, Berlin CT
  4. Chase Collegiate School, Waterbury CT
  5. Fairfield College Preparatory School, Fairfield CT
  6. Region 14 Schools, Woodbury CT
  7. Regional School District #10, Burlington CT
  8. Southington High School, Meriden CT
  9. Trinity College, Hartford CT
  10. Yale University, New Haven CT

District of Columbia

  1. American University, Washington DC
  2. KIPP DC College Preparatory Academy, Washington DC
  3. Maret School, Washington DC
  4. Sidwell Friends School, Washington DC
  5. Springarn Senior High School, Washington DC


  1. Appoquinimink School District, Odessa DE


  1. Boynton Beach Community High School, Boynton Beach FL
  2. Christopher Columbus High School, Miami FL
  3. Coral Reef Senior High School, Miami FL
  4. Cypress Creek High School, Orlando FL
  5. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton FL
  6. Hillsborough High School, Tampa FL
  7. Keys Gate Charter High School, Homestead FL
  8. Lyndon B. Johnson Middle School, Melbourne FL
  9. Manatee Technical College, Bradenton FL
  10. Miami Country Day School, Miami FL
  11. Ocoee High School, Ocoee FL
  12. Palm Beach Atlantic University, West Palm Beach FL
  13. Palmer Trinity School, Miami FL
  14. Polk County Public Schools, Bartow FL
  15. Port St. Lucie Public Schools, Port St. Lucie FL
  16. Suncoast Community High School, Riveria Beach FL
  17. Tenoroc High School, Lakeland FL


  1. Chattahoochee Technical College, Marietta GA
  2. Clayton State University, Morrow GA
  3. Cobb County Schools, Atlanta GA
  4. Dacula High School, Dacula GA
  5. Decatur High School, Decatur GA
  6. Georgia Cyber Academy, Atlanta GA
  7. Georgia Perimeter College, Atlanta GA
  8. Hart County High School, Hartwell GA
  9. Johns Creek High School, Johns Creek GA
  10. Lanier Technical College, Gainesville GA
  11. Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw GA
  12. North Springs Charter High School, Sandy Springs GA
  13. University of Georgia, Athens GA
  14. University of West Georgia, Carrollton GA


  1. Acero Schools, Chicago IL
  2. Benito Juarez Community Academy, Chicago IL
  3. Bogan Computer Technical High School, Chicago IL
  4. Bond County High School, Greenville IL
  5. Bunker Hill High School, Bunker Hill IL
  6. Chicago Bulls College Prep, Chicago IL
  7. Cristo Rey St. Martin College Prep, Waukegan, Chicago IL
  8. Daniel Hale Williams Prep School of Medicine, Chicago IL
  9. Dundee-Crown High School, Carpentersville IL
  10. Farragut Career Academy High School, Chicago IL
  11. Grayslake Central High School, Grayslake IL
  12. Heartland Community College, Normal IL
  13. Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Flossmoor IL
  14. Illinois State University, Bloomington/Normal IL
  15. Jones College Prep High School, Chicago IL
  16. Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago IL
  17. Marshall Metro High School, Chicago IL
  18. McClure Junior High School, Western Springs IL
  19. New Trier Township High School District, Winnetka IL
  20. Noble Network of Charter Schools, Chicago IL
  21. Saint Xavier University, Chicago IL
  22. Theodore Roosevelt High School, Chicago IL
  23. Walter Payton College Prep, Chicago IL


  1. Connections Academy, Indianapolis IN
  2. Franklin Central High School, Indianapolis IN
  3. Franklin Township Community School Corporation, Indianapolis IN
  4. Indiana University East, Richmond IN
  5. North Central High School, Indianapolis IN
  6. Tri-West Middle School, Lizton IN


  1. Iowa Falls-Alden High School, Iowa Falls IA
  2. Iowa Department of Education, Des Moines IA


  1. Seaman High School, Topeka KS
  2. Shawnee Mission West High School, Overland Park KS
  3. Wichita Public Schools-USD259, Wichita KS


  1. Bullit Central High School, Sherpherdsville, KY


  1. Ouachita Parish School District, West Monroe LA


  1. Sanford High School, Sanford ME


  1. Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore MD
  2. Franklin High School, Reistertown MD
  3. Old Mill High School, Millersville MD
  4. Prince Georges County Public Schools, Largo MD
  5. Suitland High School, Forestville MD
  6. The Academy of the Holy Cross, Kensington MD
  7. The Park School of Baltimore, Baltimore MD
  8. University of Maryland Graduate School, College Park MD
  9. U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis MD


  1. Abby Keller Foster Charter School, Worcester MA
  2. Auburn High School, Auburn MA
  3. Boston Community Leadership Academy, Boston MA
  4. Boston Latin School, Boston MA
  5. Boston Public Schools, Boston MA
  6. Boston Trinity Academy, Boston MA
  7. Boston University, Boston MA
  8. Brighton High School, Boston MA
  9. Burlington High School, Burlington MA
  10. Cambridge Public Schools, Cambridge MA
  11. Cardinal Spellman High School, Brockton MA
  12. Chelmsford High School, North Chelmsford MA
  13. Foxborough Regional Charter School, Foxborough MA
  14. Lawrence Public Schools, Lawrence MA
  15. Mary Lyon Pilot High School, Brighton MA
  16. Masconomet Regional High School, Boxord MA
  17. Newton South High School, Newton MA
  18. North Attleboro High School, North Attleboro MA
  19. Norwood Public Schools, Norwood MA
  20. Reading Memorial High School, Reading MA
  21. Southbridge High School, Southbridge MA
  22. Springfield Central High School, Springfield MA
  23. Summit Educational Group, Newton MA
  24. TechBoston Academy, Dorchester MA
  25. Wellesley High School, Wellesley MA


  1. Deerfield High School, Deerfield MI
  2. Lawrence Technology University, Southfield MI
  3. Michigan State University, East Lansing MI
  4. Muskegon Community College, Muskegon MI
  5. Saginaw Public School System, Saginaw MI


  1. Anoka-Hennepin Public Schools, Anoka MN
  2. Convent of the Visitation School, Mendota Heights MN
  3. Henry Sibley High School, Mendota Heights MN
  4. Macalester College, St. Paul MN
  5. North Lakes Academy Charter School, Forest Lake MN
  6. Michael-Albertville High School, St. Michael MN


  1. Alcorn State University, Lorman MS
  2. Forest High School, Forest MS
  3. Horn Lake High School, Horn Lake MS
  4. Jackson Public Schools, Jackson MS
  5. Kemper County High School, De Kalb MS
  6. Madison S Palmer High School, Marks MS


  1. Affton High School, St. Louis MO
  2. Central High School, Park Hills MO
  3. Columbia College, Columbia MO
  4. Gateway Science Academy, St. Louis MO
  5. Pembroke Hill School, Kansas City MO

New Hampshire

  1. Merrimack High School, Merrimack NH
  2. Southern New Hampshire University, Manchester NH

New Jersey

  1. Alvirne High School, Hudson NJ
  2. Bergen Catholic High School, Oradel NJ
  3. Bridgewater-Raritan Regional School District, Bridgewater NJ
  4. Patrick Healy Middle School, East Orange NJ
  5. Delbarton School, Morristown NJ
  6. Essex County College, Newark NJ
  7. High Technology High School, Lincroft NJ
  8. Lyndhurst High School, Lyndhurst NJ
  9. McNair Academic High School, Jersey City NJ
  10. Monsignor Donovan High School, Toms River NJ
  11. North Star Academy, Newark NJ
  12. Patterson Public Schools, Patterson NJ
  13. Wayne Hills High School, Wayne NJ

New Mexico

  1. Sandia Preparatory School, Albuquerque NM
  2. New Mexico Junior College, Hobbs NM
  3. New Mexico Connections Academy, Santa Fe NM

New York

  1. Archdiocese of New York Schools, New York NY
  2. Bellmore-Merrick Central High School District, North Merrick NY
  3. Buffalo Public Schools, Buffalo NY
  4. City Honors School, Buffalo NY
  5. Columbia University, Brooklyn NY
  6. Democracy Prep Public Schools, New York NY
  7. Richard Izquerido Health & Science Charter School, Bronx NY
  8. East Bronx Academy for the Future, New York NY
  9. Highland High School, Highland NY
  10. High School for Environmental Studies, New York, NY
  11. Lawrence Woodmere Academy, Woodmere NY
  12. Liberation Diploma Plus High School, Brooklyn NY
  13. Manhattan Village Academy, New York NY
  14. Mott Hall Bronx High School, Bronx NY
  15. New Dorp High School, Staten Island NY
  16. New Visions for Public Schools, Bronx NY
  17. New York City College of Technology, New York NY
  18. New York City Department of Education, New York NY
  19. New York University, New York NY
  20. Preston High School, Bronx NY
  21. The New School, New York NY
  22. Unatego Central School District, Unatego NY
  23. World Journalism Preparatory School, Queens NY

North Carolina

  1. Apex High School, Apex NC
  2. Bertie County Schools, North Windsor NC
  3. Community School of Davidson, Davidson NC
  4. Davidson Day School, Davidson NC
  5. East Carolina University, Greenville NC
  6. Guilford County Schools, Greensboro NC
  7. Jack Britt High School, Fayetteville NC
  8. Johnston County Early College Academy, Smithfield NC
  9. Mecklenburg Area Catholic Schools, Charlotte NC
  10. Philo-Hill Magnet Academy, Winston-Salem NC
  11. Pitt County Schools, Greenville NC
  12. Wingate Andrews High School, High Point NC
  13. University of North Carolina, Charlotte NC


  1. Albert Einstein Academy, Cleveland OH
  2. Beachwood High School, Beachwood OH
  3. Cristo Rey Columbus High School, Columbus OH
  4. Cleveland Metropolitan School District, Cleveland OH
  5. Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH
  6. Delaware Area Career Center, Delaware OH
  7. John Glenn High School, New Concord OH
  8. Kent State University at Stark, North Canton OH
  9. Lake Ridge Academy, North Ridgeville OH
  10. North Olmstead High School, North Olmstead OH
  11. Ohio State University-Newark Campus, Newark OH
  12. Springfield City School District, Springfield OH
  13. Strongsville City Schools, Strongsville OH
  14. University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande OH
  15. Westlake High School, Westlake OH


  1. Dallas School District, Dallas OR
  2. Gresham-Barlow School District, Gresham OR


  1. Central Bucks High School East, Buckingham PA
  2. Central Dauphin School District, Harrisburg PA
  3. Chester Senior High School, Chester PA
  4. Cristo Rey Philadelphia High School, Philadelphia PA
  5. Community College of Allegheny County-South Campus, West Mifflin PA
  6. Conestoga Valley School District, Lancaster PA
  7. Delaware County Christian School, Newton Square PA
  8. Democracy Prep Public Schools, Morrisville PA
  9. Harrisburg School District, Harrisburg PA
  10. Haverford School, Haverford PA
  11. Manheim Township School District, Lancaster PA
  12. Middletown Area High School, Middletown PA
  13. Milton Hershey School, Hershey PA
  14. Lebanon School District, Mt. Lebanon PA
  15. Northern Lebanon High School, Fredericksburg PA
  16. Pennsylvania Leadership Charter School, West Chester PA
  17. Reading Public Schools, Reading PA
  18. Shady Side Academy, Allison Park PA
  19. Springside Chestnut Hill Academy, Philadelphia PA
  20. Tredyffrin/Easttown School District, Wayne PA
  21. U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, Carlisle Barracks PA
  22. William Tennet High School, Warminster PA

Rhode Island

  1. Brown University, Providence RI
  2. Rogers High School, Newport RI

South Carolina

  1. C. Flora High School, Columbia SC
  2. Chester Senor High School, Chester SC
  3. Clover School District, Clover SC
  4. Lexington County School District, Lexington SC
  5. Senaca High School, Senaca SC
  6. Winthrop University, Rock Hill SC

South Dakota

  1. Pierre School District, Pierre SD
  2. S. Riggs High School, Pierre SD


  1. Dickson County High School, Dickson TN
  2. KIPP Memphis Collegiate Schools, Memphis TN
  3. Middletown High School, Middletown TN
  4. Power Center Academy High School, Memphis TN
  5. Rutherford County Board of Education, Murfreesboro TN
  6. Sequatchie County High School, Dunlap TN


  1. Alba-Golden ISD, Alba TX
  2. Anna ISD, Anna TX
  3. Aransas County ISD, Rockport TX
  4. Austin Community College-Pinnacle Campus, Austin TX
  5. Brookhaven College, Farmers Branch TX
  6. Cypress-Fairbanks ISD, Houston TX
  7. Dallas Independent School District, Irving TX
  8. Floresville ISD, Floresville TX
  9. Flower Mound High School, Flower Mound TX
  10. Floydada High School, Floydada TX
  11. Goodrich Independent School District, Goodrich TX
  12. Houston Community College, Houston TX
  13. Houston ISD, Houston TX
  14. International Leadership of Texas-Garland Campus, Garland TX
  15. KIPP Houston Public Schools, Houston TX
  16. Klein Oak High School, Spring TX
  17. Lake Belton Middle School, Belton TX
  18. Lamar CISD, Rosenberg TX
  19. Lone Star Community College-Kingwood, Kingwood TX
  20. McMurry University, Abilene TX
  21. Martin High School, Arlington TX
  22. Meridan World School, Round Rock TX
  23. Northside ISD, San Antonio TX
  24. North Texas University, Dallas TX
  25. Pasadena Independent School District, Pasadena TX
  26. Plano ISD, Plano TX
  27. L. Turner High School, Carrollton TX
  28. Round Rock ISD, Round Rock TX
  29. Sam Houston State University, Huntsville TX
  30. San Angelo ISD, San Angelo TX
  31. Spring ISD, Houston TX
  32. Agnes Academy, Houston TX
  33. Stephens Episcopal School, Austin TX
  34. Terrill Independent School District, Terrell TX
  35. Texas A&M University, San Antonio TX
  36. Trinity Valley School, Ft. Worth TX
  37. University of Houston-Downtown, Houston TX
  38. University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX
  39. University of Texas-El Paso, El Paso TX
  40. Uplift Education Charter Schools, Irving TX
  41. YES Prep Public Schools, Houston TX


  1. Nebo School District, Spanish Fork UT
  2. Rowland Hall, Salt Lake City UT


  1. Chantilly High School, Chantilly VA
  2. Collegiate School, Richmond VA
  3. Fairfax County Public Schools, Arlington VA
  4. Gar-Field High School, Woodbridge VA
  5. George Mason University, Fairfax VA
  6. Highland Springs High School, Highland Springs VA
  7. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA
  8. Johnson-Williams Middle School, Berryville VA
  9. McLean High School, McLean VA
  10. Miller School of Albemarle, Charlottesville VA
  11. Patriot High School, Nokesville VA
  12. Pulaski County High School, Dublin VA
  13. Stonewall Jackson High School, Quicksburg VA
  14. University of Virginia Center for Politics, Charlottesville VA


  1. Kent School District, Kent WA
  2. Northshore School District, Bothell WA


  1. Viterbo College, La Crosse WI
  2. Waukesha South High School, Waukesha WI


  1. American School of Durango, Durango MX
  2. American School Foundation of Guadalajara, Guadalajara MX
  3. American School Foundation of Mexico City MX
  4. American School Foundation of Monterrey, Monterrey MX
  5. American School of Puerto Vallarta, Puerto Vallarta MX
  6. Colegio Columbia, Tampico MX
  7. Colegio Ingles Americano, Monterrey MX
  8. Cornerstone Academy, Guadalajara MX
  9. Instituto Thomas Jefferson, Guadalajara MX
  10. International School of Cancun, Cancun MX
  11. The American School of Querétaro, Querétaro MX
  12. Peterson Schools, Mexico City MX
  13. San Roberto International School, Monterrey MX
  14. Westhill Institute, Mexico City MX


  1. Capital International Schools, Cairo, Egypt
  2. Frankfurt International School, Oberusel, Germany
  3. Hangzhou International School, Hangzhou City, China
  4. Monno International School, Monno City, Bangladesh
  5. Quality Schools International-Minsk, Minsk, Belarus
  6. Nu’Uuli VoTech High School, Pago Pago
  7. Cheonga Dalton School, Cheonga, South Korea
  8. SMIC Private School-Shanghai, Shanghai, China


Advisory Council members boost outreach efforts



New members (l-r): Mauri Shuler, Mark Collins, and Madison Barlow

We’re proud to profile three new members of the LAMP Advisory Council who are helping with outreach efforts to news media, educators, and social media.

Mauri Shuler, a retired NBC News journalist from Seattle, has a strong background in international communications and in community college education, and is working with LAMP to develop outreach activities to news media and community colleges.

For 30 years, she worked in broadcast news as a reporter, producer, editor, and manager in a career that spanned the globe from California to China and the Philippines, from Israel to Argentina, and points in between. As NBC Bureau Chief in Tel Aviv, Israel, during the first Intifada, she arranged the first live broadcast from the Old City in Jerusalem. She managed a full team, including live Nightly News broadcasts, from the 1986 Mexico City earthquake. Her other coverage included the wars of Central America during the 80s, the revolution in the Philippines, dictatorships and uprisings in South America and, finally, the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Oklahoma City terrorist bombing in 1995. She was nominated for a national Emmy Award for her Middle East work and received two regional Emmys for television news production.

Mauri is a strong supporter of community colleges and has been a member of the Board of Trustees of Edmonds Community College and president of the Trustees Association of Community and Technical Colleges. As a Public Affairs volunteer for the American Red Cross, she is responsible for writing, editing and posting stories and photographs about disasters and the Red Cross. She has also acted as a Red Cross spokesperson doing television, radio and print interviews.

Mark Collins is a teacher in Prince George’s County, Maryland, who will be advising LAMP on ways of connecting with teachers in the DC, MD, and VA area. He has taught various history, government, and social studies related courses over a career of several decades in Washington, DC, and is currently teaching at Suitland High School in Forestville. He has written curriculum and standards for D.C. Public Schools in history, served as a cooperating teacher for student teachers, and has served on a wide variety of panels and committees during his career.

As a result of a series of Facebook posts he discovered the connection between Abraham Lincoln and Mexico, and the Abraham Lincoln and Mexico website, which has also piqued an interest in researching and writing about Lincoln’s diplomatic appointees and foreign policy during his term in office. One of his favorite historical sites is in Washington, DC and that site is Fort Stevens. Mark earned a BA in Political Science from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ and later this year will finally enroll in a Master’s program in American History.

Madison Barlow is an American student at Ithaca College in Ithaca, New York, where she studies Integrated Marketing Communications and Writing, and she will help LAMP with social media strategies and content. Her concentrations include social media marketing, brand management, event planning & management, and creative writing. Currently, Madison holds positions on Ithaca College’s campus as lead Image-Text Editor for Stillwater Literary Magazine and Contributing Writer for Buzzsaw Magazine. During the summer of 2018, she had a position as Communications Intern for a business in Providence, Rhode Island, where she participated in a number of projects with the marketing team, including managing social media platforms, publishing press releases, and designing marketing materials.

We’re delighted with the involvement of Mauri, Mark, and Madison, and welcome them to the LAMP Advisory Council. The full list of current members is:

  1. Janet Layton Arribas, teacher, Pasadena CA area
  2. Madison Barlow, integrated marketing communications and writing major, Ithaca College, NY
  3. Ronald Barnett, Ph.D. historian and former professor, Jocotopec, MX
  4. Shaun Arron Cassidy, social media marketing, San Diego CA
  5. Gen. Clever Chavez Marin, historian and Mexican military expert, Zapopan, MX
  6. Noor Chehabeddine, Advanced Placement US History (APUSH) student, American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG), Guadalajara, MX
  7. Mark Collins, high school teacher, Washington DC area
  8. Sylvia N. Contreras, businesswoman, history activist, and LAMP PR representative, Long Beach, CA
  9. Robert DiYanni, Ph.D. Professor, and instructional consultant, Center for the Advancement of Teaching at NYU, New York City
  10. Heribert von Feilitzsch, historian, author, and business executive, Washington DC area
  11. Héctor García Chávez, Director, Latin American-Latinx Studies, Loyola University, Chicago IL
  12. Emb. Carlos Gonzalez-Magallon, retired Mexican foreign service official, Ajijic, MX
  13. Rocìo Guenther, freelance journalist, San Antonio, TX
  14. Jorge Haynes, retired California State University administrator, Austin, TX
  15. Janet Heinze, international education consultant, Guadalajara, MX
  16. Javier Hernández, photojournalist and reporter, Chihuahua, MX
  17. Michael Hogan, historian and author, Guadalajara MX
  18. Fiachra Keogh, international history educator, Ireland and Mexico
  19. Cindy A. Medina Gallardo, history activist, genealogist, and LAMP senior PR representative, Austin, TX
  20. Carlos Alberto Méndez Villa, Ministry of Culture, Chihuahua, MX
  21. Luciana Mendez, computer sciences student at DePaul University, Chicago, IL
  22. Liam O’Hara, high school social studies Department Head, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  23. Stacy Lynn Ohrt-Billingslea, Theatre Director, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  24. Brenda Prado, APUSH student, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  25. Mark Sconce, author and retired businessman, Camarillo, CA
  26. Mauri Shuler, retired NBC News journalist, Seattle, WA
  27. Jason Silverman, Ph.D. retired university history professor, Rock Hill, SC
  28. Richard Stafford, retired journalist, Washington DC area
  29. Philip Stover, historian and retired deputy superintendent of San Diego Unified School System, Chihuahua, MX
  30. Isaias Torres, APUSH teacher, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  31. Christena Wiseman, retired high school educator, Reno NV
  32. David Wogahn, digital publishing executive, Carlsbad CA



Five facts students may not know about Abraham Lincoln

lincoln ep

The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before President Abraham Lincoln’s Cabinet, painted by F.B. Carpenter. (Library of Congress) (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

Almost every USA high school student learns that Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on New Year’s Day in 1863, as discussed in national news media recently. But most students are unaware that Lincoln was also a supporter of Mexico, both before and during the US Civil War.

Lincoln’s support for Mexico is detailed in a book by historian/ educator Michael Hogan that examines archival documents to look at Lincoln as an international statesman, not just an iconic American political figure. Here are five facts from the book that students may not know, starting with Lincoln’s objections to the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848:

1. As a freshman member of Congress, Lincoln was willing to risk his political career by objecting to the ongoing Mexican-American War. His first major speech in Congress contained a series of resolutions the news media dubbed the “Spot Resolutions,” which detailed his objections to the war and demanded that President Polk identify the geographical spot where Polk told Congress that Mexico “invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil.”

2. In his thorough research to prepare his resolutions, Lincoln determined that the 1836 Velasco Agreement forcing Mexican troops to withdraw to the Rio Grande was not a real treaty because Santa Anna was coerced to sign it after he was captured in the battle of San Jacinto, and the Mexican government had refused to ratify it.

3. Before his inauguration as president, Lincoln offered his friendship to Mexico during a meeting in Springfield, Illinois, in 1861 with Mexican ambassador Matías Romero, the first foreign envoy to meet with the president-elect.

4. After French troops drove Mexican President Juárez into exile, Lincoln and his cabinet maintained official neutrality with Mexico to keep France from supporting the Confederacy during the Civil War. However, Lincoln responded to Romero’s pleas for help and authorized covert aid to Mexico.

5. During the French occupation of Mexico, Mrs. Lincoln and President Lincoln held several private White House meetings with Romero and major US investors friendly to the Mexican cause. This enabled the 24-year-old Mexican envoy to ultimately raise $18 million to arm and supply the Republican Army, ending European presence in North America after Lincoln’s death. 

The print version of Dr. Hogan’s book is in the Lincoln Presidential Library and many public libraries and at colleges and universities. Educators in more than 150 schools have received electronic copies of the book free of charge from the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP). We’re hoping that many of them will use the book this February to observe Lincoln’s birthday by stimulating classroom discussion about Lincoln and Mexico.

LAMP can also provide educators with a three-act student play focusing on the friendships between Mrs. Lincoln, President Lincoln, Romero, and Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. The world premiere in 2017 wowed audiences and critics in Mexico, which has several statues honoring Lincoln. If you’re interested, we can also provide complete lesson plans based on the book and the play. All the materials are free for education purposes. Just send an email request to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org.

Thanks, and best regards.


Abraham Lincoln and Mexico book is at Ford’s Theatre!


Photo courtesy of fords.org

The Abraham Lincoln and Mexico book by historian/ educator Michael Hogan attracted more fans resulting from his appearance at 2018 International Book Fair (FIL) in Guadalajara, Mexico.

One is the Associate Director for Interpretive Resources at Ford’s Theatre in Washington DC, who saw the Facebook posts about Dr. Hogan at FIL and decided to buy the book for the historic theatre.

“Purchased! My colleagues at Ford’s Theatre and I are excited to read it,” David Patrick McKenzie commented. “If you find yourself in DC, please do let me know. Would love to say hi and show you around Ford’s.”

Who knows–maybe Dr. Hogan’s book examining Lincoln’s legacy of support for Mexico will become part of the theatre’s display of nearly 7,000 books about Lincoln.lincoln_custom

Photo courtesy of NPR

Part of the onsite interest at FIL came from a three-hour book signing event Nov. 30, where Dr. Hogan was able to chat with FIL visitors about the book and to autograph copies they bought. He also autographed copies of his 1997 book The Irish Soldiers of Mexico.

“It’s always rewarding to interact personally with readers at events big and small,” said Hogan. “And I’m excited about the many others who responded positively this week to postings on Facebook, especially from Ford’s Theatre.”

Many high school and college students visited with Dr. Hogan during the event including pupils from Colegio Cervantes, Colegio Alpes, as well as German exchange students from the University of San Diego, and young people from Tec de Monterrey and the University of Guadalajara.

While most of the adult visitors were from Mexico, conversing and buying Spanish language version of the book, there were expats from the American Society in Guadalajara and from Lake Chapala, as well as visitors from California and Texas. Photos from his appearance at FIL were featured on the official Facebook page for the book, which has 5,000 followers.

The nine-day International Book Fair is the largest and most important literary event in the Spanish speaking world. Since its founding in 1987, it has grown to attract nearly 1,000,000 visitors annually, 20,000 exhibitors and publishers from about 50 countries, more than 100 literary agents, and almost 2,000 journalists. La Perla bookstore in Guadalajara hosted Dr. Hogan’s book signing event at FIL and sells his books at its store in the trendy Chapultepec area of the city.

New Advisory Council members from USA, Ireland, and Mexico


LAMP Advisory Council members (l-r): Héctor García Chávez, Fiachra Keogh, and Noor Chehabeddine

The Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) is proud to profile three more members of its international Advisory Council. They include a university professor from the United States, an international educator from Ireland, and an international student from Mexico. Their addition means LAMP now has Advisory Council members throughout North America, and even in Europe and Asia.

Dr. Héctor García Chávez is Director of the Latin American and Latinx Studies Program at Loyola University in Chicago, a Loyola Sujack Master Teacher, and was recently awarded The Ignatius Loyola Award for Excellence in Teaching. He is helping LAMP with strategies for using the book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico in Latin American Studies. He is also Director of the Undergraduate Spanish Program at Loyola University Chicago where he teaches courses on Spanish language, Latin American-Iberian Literatures, Queer Theory for the Spanish Major, Loyola’s Interdisciplinary Honours Program, and Women’s Studies/Gender Studies Undergraduate and Graduate Programs. He is a Programing Associate and Advisory Council Member of Lit&Luz Festivals (https://www.litluz.org/schedule-chicago-2018/), which take place in México City and Chicago with funding awarded by the National Endowment for the Arts. Also, he has invited celebrated Mexican writers Jorge Volpi, Margo Glantz, Ignacio Solares, Eloy Urroz, and Georgina García Gutiérrez to Loyola in collaboration with the Chicago Mexican Consulate and the UNAM-Chicago Campus where he is a Visiting Scholar.

Fiachra Keogh is a National University of Galway history graduate working with the Education and Training Board, Ireland (ETBI). He is experienced in cross border peace building projects including the facilitation of cross community dialogue groups, advocating on behalf of new and disadvantaged communities in Ireland, teaching history in high school in Mexico, and facilitating the integration of Congolese refugees into Irish society. His most recent project involved bringing a group of marginalized youth to work with the Enough Project on a campaign to promote peace and justice in Africa. The project entitled “The Human Cost of Electronics” was awarded the ECO UNESCO Young Environmentalist Community Development Award at the Mansion House in Dublin in May 2018.

Noor Chehabeddine is an international student at the American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG), which uses the book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico in its US History and Advanced Placement United States History (APUSH) classes. While taking the APUSH class, she volunteered in early 2018 to help with LAMP social media efforts. Here’s what she says: “Being a high schooler in the APUSH course, I get to constantly benefit from LAMP. I aid with the spreading of the positive relation between Mexico and the United States through the running of the Pinterest and YouTube pages promoting Dr. Hogan’s book. It is a privilege to have access to the information in Abraham Lincoln and Mexico, and I therefore use these media accounts to spread it as much as possible.” We’re happy to have Noor’s student perspective and involvement.

Here’s the list of current Advisory Council members:

  1. Janet Layton Arribas, teacher, Pasadena, CA area
  2. Ronald Barnett, Ph.D. historian and former professor, Jocotopec, MX
  3. Stacy Ohrt Billingslea, drama teacher, Dhaka, India
  4. Shaun Arron Cassidy, social media marketing, San Diego, CA
  5. Clever Chavez Marin, historian and Mexican military expert, Zapopan, MX
  6. Noor Chehabeddine, Advanced Placement US History (APUSH) student, American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG), Guadalajara, MX
  7. Mark Collins, Social Studies teacher, Washington DC area
  8. Sylvia N. Contreras, businesswoman, history activist, and LAMP PR representative, Long Beach, CA
  9. Robert DiYanni, Ph.D. Professor, and instructional consultant, Center for the Advancement of Teaching at NYU, New York City
  10. Heribert von Feilitzsch, historian, author, and business executive, Washington DC area
  11. Héctor García Chávez, Director, Latin American-Latinx Studies, Loyola University, Chicago, IL
  12. Carlos Gonzalez-Magallon, retired Mexican foreign service official, Ajijic, MX
  13. Rocìo Guenther, freelance journalist, San Antonio, TX
  14. Jorge Haynes, retired California State University administrator, Austin, TX
  15. Janet Heinze, international education consultant, Guadalajara, MX
  16. Javier Hernández, photojournalist and reporter, Chihuahua, MX
  17. Michael Hogan, historian and educator, Guadalajara, MX
  18. Fiachra Keogh, international educator, Galway Ireland
  19. Cindy A. Medina Gallardo, history activist, genealogist, and LAMP senior PR representative, Austin, TX
  20. Carlos Alberto Méndez Villa, Ministry of Culture, Chihuahua, MX
  21. Luciana Mendez, computer sciences student at DePaul University, Chicago, IL
  22. Liam O’Hara, high school Social Studies Department Head, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  23. Brenda Prado, APUSH student, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  24. Mark Sconce, author and retired businessman, Camarillo, CA
  25. Jason Silverman, Ph.D. retired university history professor, Rock Hill, SC
  26. Richard Stafford, retired journalist, Washington DC area
  27. Philip Stover, historian and retired deputy superintendent of San Diego Unified School System, Chihuahua, MX
  28. Isaias Torres, APUSH teacher, ASFG, Guadalajara, MX
  29. Christena Wiseman, retired high school educator, Reno, NV
  30. David Wogahn, digital publishing executive, Carlsbad, CA