International acclaim from historians and authors

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More Facts for Black History Month

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Company E, 4th US Colored Infantry, Washington, DC. Photo by William Morris Smith, courtesy of National Library of Congress.

During Black History Month in the USA, it’s a good time to look at how the Emancipation Proclamation allowed liberated slaves to serve in the Union Army.

Eventually, approximately 178,000 black soldiers served in the Civil War, most of them as part of the US Colored Troops (USCT). Some were free blacks, but most were liberated slaves. Twenty-five received the Congressional Medal of Honor – eighteen soldiers and seven sailors.

An overview and documented details are in the 2016 book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico by historian/ educator Michael Hogan. His research and writing to examine the impact of including black soldiers in the Union Army goes further than most historians and textbooks.

Starting with references from works by other historians, Hogan uses archival documents to follow USCT soldiers after the Civil War who became part of the American Legion of Honor recruited by Mexico in late 1865-1866 to help Mexico fight French troops that invaded Mexico in 1861 and installed a puppet monarchy.

Union veterans comprised the officer corps of the Legion, according to Hogan, but many of the rank and file were remnants of the USCT.

“The American Legion of Honor consisted of approximately 3,000 men who served in Mexico from late 1865 through the final siege of Mexico in 1867,” Hogan writes. “There is a gravesite in Mexico City where those who fell in this conflict are interred.”

The US forces in Mexico were relatively small compared to the overall Mexican Army, says Hogan.

“They usually accounted for about 500-1000 in forces of 4,000 or more,” he writes. “However, their cohesiveness, their battle experience, their outstanding leadership, and finally their superior firepower made them a fearsome force.”

Dr. Hogan’s book is in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and in university libraries in the USA and foreign countries. It’s also available from Amazon and Barnes & Noble.

Happy Birthday, President Lincoln!

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Photo courtesy of History.com

February is the month to honor all US presidents, and a good time to learn more about Abraham Lincoln around his birthday February 12.

In US social studies classes, most students are unaware that Lincoln was a strong supporter of Mexico, both before and during the US Civil War. Here are four facts:

  1. As a freshman member of Congress, Lincoln risked his political career by alleging that President Polk misled the Congress about going to war with Mexico in 1846.
  2. Before his inauguration as president, Lincoln offered his friendship to Mexico during a meeting in Springfield, Illinois, with Mexican ambassador Matías Romero, the first foreign envoy to meet with the president-elect.
  3. After French troops drove Mexican President Benito Juárez into exile, Lincoln and his cabinet maintained official neutrality with Mexico to keep France from supporting the Confederacy during the Civil War. However, Lincoln responded to Romero’s pleas for help, and authorized covert aid to Mexico.
  4. After Lincoln’s assassination, continuing US support enabled Mexico to defeat the French forces and end the last empire in North America.

Lincoln’s support for Mexico is detailed in the highly acclaimed book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico by historian/ educator Michael Hogan, which examines archival documents to look at Lincoln as an international statesman and not just an iconic American political figure. The print version is in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and in college and university libraries in the USA and several foreign countries.

Educators in more than 400 schools across the USA already have copies of the eBook version, and many are using it to stimulate classroom discussions. If you know a teacher who might be interested in the book as supplemental classroom material, ask them to send an email request to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org.

For the coming academic year, the Lincoln and Mexico Project is planning a pilot project to distribute free eBook copies to students in selected high schools. Look for details in a future blogpost.

You can learn more details about Lincoln’s support for Mexico by reading this previous LAMP blogpost.


Learning More About Lincoln


Educator/ historian Michael Hogan with middle school students in Guadalajara, Mexico

Many adults remember middle school years as a time of transition—socially, intellectually, emotionally, and physically. It’s also a time when young minds are quite curious and open to learning.

To stimulate classroom discussion about Abraham Lincoln around his birthday February 12, the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) is offering middle school educators a complimentary package of supplemental materials.

The materials include an eBook version of Abraham Lincoln and Mexico by educator / historian Michael Hogan that’s in the Lincoln Presidential Library and in more than 400 schools and colleges. The package also includes a three-act play based on the book, along with lesson plans.

Reaching out to middle school educators is part of the overall LAMP outreach to help students learn more about Lincoln, especially his legacy of support for Mexico. During December, Dr. Hogan was invited to speak to four middle school classes at the American School in Guadalajara, where he is Emeritus Humanities Chair, and found students were eager to learn more about Lincoln.

“When I was invited to teach a middle school class on Lincoln and Mexico, I was at first reluctant,” says Dr. Hogan. “Wouldn’t the material be over their heads? Even the high school principal gave me a wink when I told her of the invitation, and said, ‘Good luck with that! You have your work cut out for you.’ What I discovered, however, was that the kids were curious, receptive, and asked probing questions. It was as lively a class as I’ve taught—less self-conscious than many older students, and less cynical.”

Janet Layton Arribas, a middle school teacher in California, knows firsthand about teaching social studies to middle schoolers. She uses LAMP materials in her classroom, and she’s a member of the LAMP Advisory Council helping guide outreach to other educators.

“I believe it is essential to teach middle school students about Lincoln’s strong Mexican connection,” she says. “His opposition to the Mexican American War and his support of Juárez serve as a starting point to many important discussions about race, American exceptionalism, and the complicated historical relationship with our neighbor to the south. These topics remain pertinent today and we need to talk about them more to help us understand who we are as a nation and what kind of neighbor we can be to Mexico.”

President Lyndon Johnson, a former 5th grade teacher, citied his classroom experiences while signing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act on April 11, 1965.

“As a former teacher–and, I hope, a future one–I have great expectations of what this law will mean for all of our young people,” he said. “As President of the United States, I believe deeply no law I have signed or will ever sign means more to the future of America.” You can see the story on the blog of the National Archives.

Many other educators share the belief that these adolescent years are critical to success in high school and beyond. Phyllis Fagell, a certified professional school counselor, has worked in both public and private schools with students in grades K-12, focusing on middle school for the last several years.

“As educators, we need to preserve their natural inquisitiveness and willingness to take risks at an age when they’re feeling particularly scrutinized and judged and may be especially hesitant to go out on a limb,” she is quoted in a recent article on TeachHub.com about the importance of middle school.

Already this year, Dr. Hogan has received invitations from middle school educators in other schools. He can’t accept all the invitations, but materials from LAMP can help middle school educators take advantage of students’ curiosity and openness to learning. To request the free materials, just send an email to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org.

Why History is Important

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Dr. Michael Hogan spoke to the National Honor Society December 9, 2019, at the American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG) about the importance of studying history. Afterwards, he chatted with social studies faculty members Dr. Alondra Velasco, Director Mexican Studies (l), and Barbara Linden, Advanced Placement US History instructor. Here’s the full text of his speech.

During the last visit of the Pope to Mexico, the CNN reporter in Mexico City said, “And now the Pope is leaving this Central American capital to return to Rome.”

Central America. Mexico? Really? And this was a major TV news program.

A few weeks ago, when Evo Morales left Bolivia, the Guardian newspaper in the UK reported “…and so ends the career of the first indigenous president in Latin America.”

Really? The first? What about Benito Juárez?

Earlier this year, when Nicaraguans, El Salvadorans, and Hondurans were streaming in a caravan to the US, Bill O’Reilly on Fox news announced the “Mexican invasion of the United States.”

This would be considered ludicrous if the people responded to the announcement with scorn. But instead, months later, an 18-year-old from Dallas killed 22 people at an El Paso Wal-Mart in an attempt to stop what he called the Mexican invasion of his country.

Thus, he demonstrated not only an ignorance of history because the US invaded Mexico and seized much of its territory in 1848, but also an ignorance of demographics. Because once again, the migrant caravan he referred to was composed of Central Americans fleeing both gang violence and unsustainable climate change exacerbated by multinational corporations, and exploitation of natural resources such as water and arable land.

Much is spoken these days about the wealth gap, the 1 percent versus the rest of the folks. We also talk about the education gap, where fewer and fewer students have access to quality education.

Tonight, I would like to talk about the history gap, where fewer and fewer people understand or see the importance of history and how this lack of knowledge endangers us all.

The news has been full in recent years of the decline of history in universities throughout the Americas. Last year Dr. Benjamin Schmidt of Northeastern University published an article showing that for the past decade history has been declining as a major more rapidly than any other discipline over the past 10 years.

In Wisconsin, the state university closed the history department. Other universities reduced the number of history professors they employed. One student noted, “I love history, but my parents said, ´What kind of job are you going to get with that as a major?’”

But there is one place where the steep decline in history major has had no effect. There is one group of universities when the number of people studying history has in fact increased three-fold. Care to guess where? In the most prestigious colleges and universities. At Yale, Dartmouth, Harvard and Columbia. When I told an ASFG faculty member this, she replied, “Well of course. They don’t have to worry about getting a job.”

But the answer is more interesting than that. According to Dr. Alan Mikhail, the head of the history department at Yale, “Our students know that they will be the leaders in the future whether in politics, finance, industry or human development. The study of history is more than just dates and events. It includes the study of geography, of statistics, of demographics, of climate change, of law, and foreign relations. For that reason, some of our brightest STEM students take history courses, as do those in international business and marketing.”

History makes you feel that you are part of a continuum, you are part of generations that were here before you, you learn from their mistakes and failures, as well as their accomplishments and victories. You learn that you are not alone.

Fernando Rojas, a Mexican and the head of Yale’s Institute of Transnational Migration, has a degree in history. So does Prince Charles in the UK. So does Howard Stringer, former CEO of Sony Corporation. So does Chris Hughes, the co-founder of Facebook. It has also been the major of choice for leaders in government.

Among US presidents with history degrees were Woodrow Wilson, John F. Kennedy, and Dwight Eisenhower. Also, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, former prime minister of England Winston Churchill, three Supreme Court justices, and six Nobel Prize winners.

Dr. Mikhail, the history chairperson at Yale, went on to say, “The reason students at Yale can afford to study history is that they know they are smart enough, personable enough, and talented enough to get a good position. But they also know that the only way to get to the top of their profession and make positive changes is through something deeper than just a skill set—even a complex one like international finance, engineering, or medicine.”

They know the only way to understand the present is to embrace the messiness of politics, culture and economics. They know there are never easy answers to pressing questions about the world and public life, and they look to deepen their understanding. The study of history gives them that.

In 1942, Hitler gathered the best minds of his generation: the geneticists, the architects, the chemists, the surgeons, the psychologists, the statisticians. His goal was to create a brain trust to prepare the final solution—the destruction of the Jews. The geneticists did experiments with twins, the chemists created poison gas, the architects created concentration camps, the psychologists studied how much pain or extremes of temperature a person could tolerate before dying, the statisticians kept track of how many millions they killed.

Nowhere was there a historian. Hitler had eliminated that as a program of study in the schools back in the 1930s and was contemptuous of it, as are most autocratic leaders who want to be exceptions to the constitutional limits, and the common decencies which are necessary to produce a livable society.

John F. Kennedy once wrote: “Too often we enjoy the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought.” For example, we are constantly told by posts on the Internet and on the news that the jobs of the future will all be in the STEM field. Science, technology, engineer and mathematics. And of all of these, engineering will be the most secure and lucrative.

Most of these posts and articles are written by people on the payroll of multinational corporations whose goal is to obtain cheap labor from professionals in the future. Give it some thought.

In 2016 China graduated 5.6 million students in STEM disciplines; 2.5 million were engineers. In India, they graduated 1.8 million STEM students and 800,000 were engineers. Sixty percent of them are unemployed today. Many are waiting to get visas to go to the US, where they will flood the market and lower the wages for engineers well into 2025, 2030, and beyond.

Now, some of the people who are telling us we need more engineers and more STEM students, and that a liberal arts degree is worthless, are good people. They have good intentions. But they are repeating when they read (an Opinion) without doing the research. And sadly, some are as oblivious to the real facts as those commentators who think Mexico is in Central America, or Benito Juárez never existed.

So, this is my challenge to you NHS members. My talented, bright, and motivated students: Remember history as you move through your educational options whether it is here at ASFG or later at a university.

Do not lose sight of your goal to make the most of your time on the planet, not just to develop a skill set, or earn money, or even follow your passion whatever that may be. But to truly add what you can to the good of the world and not, from lack of research, to inadvertently contribute to its decline.

Be ready to debunk the myths of the media when they tell you that the study of history is useless or when they pit one generation against the other or try to divide us by sexual identity.

For every Greta Thornburg at 16 there is a Jane Fonda at 81, and for every woman like Jane Fonda there is a man like Jimmy Carter. Those who do not see a multigenerational world are like birds in a cage, locked into a dreary present with no understanding of the past and no clear vision of the future.

People of all generations, colors, creeds, and sexual identity are truly working together to make this a better world. But it is in the interests of corporate oligarchs to keep us divided, as well as those hundreds, no thousands, of businesses and individuals who profit from conflicts: security firms, talk show hosts, arms manufacturers, media pundits, and soulless politicians.

As John F. Kennedy once said, “United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.”

Thank you all for sharing the stage with me tonight. My warmest congratulations to you, to your parents, your teachers, and your grandparents who have supported you and encouraged you along the way. You are truly blessed. May you continue to pass those blessings on in your own histories and make the world a better place.

Un abrazo muy muy fuerte.

–Educator/ historian Michael Hogan is the author of more than 24 books including We Never Know How High We Are Till We Are Called to Rise, a collection of 15 inspirational talks he has given to NHS members. Available on Amazon at https://amzn.to/34UOXyu.


A Republican President Who Risked His Career to Support Mexico

The Dallas Morning News published a very good commentary August 25, 2019, by historian/educator Michael Hogan explaining why educators and students should discuss historical relations between the USA and Mexico. Here’s the full text:

At a time when much of border politics revolves around inflammatory rhetoric and divisive arguments, including talk of a “Hispanic invasion,” it would be useful to reflect on an earlier period of U.S.-Mexico relations and a Republican president who had a quite different view of that country and its people than today’s incumbent.

Few American students know that the 1846 invasion of Mexico by the U.S. deprived Mexico of almost half of its territory and resulted in the formation of several U.S. states, including California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada, as well as parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming and Colorado. Few know that the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which officially ended the war in 1848, offered automatic citizenship to Mexicans in that captured territory, but the U.S. reneged on that provision.

When Abraham Lincoln was a first-term congressman from Illinois, he risked his political career by standing up in the House of Representatives and accusing President James Polk of invading Mexican territory without provocation and then misleading Congress to declare war on that country by claiming that “American blood was shed on American soil.” In his remarks, Lincoln presented several “spot resolutions” asserting that any blood shed was on Mexican soil, and that the U.S. was the aggressor.

It did not go down well with Polk and his supporters. Lincoln was accused of giving aid and support to the enemy. Newspapers referred to him as “spotty Lincoln.” Lincoln’s Whig party would lose its majority in the House in 1848, and he would be defeated for the Senate race a few years later.

Lincoln was not the only prominent person who objected to the U.S. invasion. General Ulysses S. Grant, who was an Army captain and participated in the invasion, called it the “most unjust war ever waged by a stronger nation against a weaker” and considered resigning his commission. Henry David Thoreau wrote his famous essay “On Civil Disobedience” and went to jail in Concord, Mass., for refusing to pay taxes that he felt would go to support the war in Mexico. Former President John Quincy Adams was also strongly opposed. But Lincoln risked the most, and persisted well after the rest fell silent, despite warnings from his law partner and members of his own party.

Fourteen years later, in 1861, shortly after his surprise election to the presidency as a compromise Republican candidate, Lincoln welcomed Matías Romero, the Mexican ambassador, to his home in Springfield, Ill. The 24-year-old Romero was the first foreign ambassador that Lincoln met and entertained before his inauguration on March 4. The personal note Lincoln gave to Romero offered “sincere wishes for the happiness, prosperity and liberty of yourself, your government and its people.” Dated Jan. 21, 1861, it is now on display in the Chicago History Museum.

In Washington D.C., the president and first lady became friends with Romero. After France invaded Mexico in 1863 and imposed the Archduke Maximilian on the throne, Lincoln covertly provided assistance to the exiled republican government of Benito Juárez. It was done secretly because Lincoln was afraid that if the French found out they might join forces with the Confederacy to defeat the Union. He and Mary Todd Lincoln introduced the young Romero (now an asylum seeker with no official status) to prominent bankers and investors so that he was able to raise over $14 million to arm and supply the Mexican Republican Army and defeat the French.

Lincoln and Juárez could not have been more different physically. Lincoln was 6 feet 4; Juárez 4 feet 6. One of Anglo-Scot stock, the other a Zapotec Indian. Yet they were both successful lawyers, both confirmed republicans, both committed to human rights, and both struggling to unite opposing forces within their countries. It is thanks to Lincoln that the U.S. is not a divided federation, and thanks to Juárez that Mexico is not a repressive monarchy.

There are statues of Lincoln in El Paso and Mexico City today, and he is the second most beloved U.S. president in Mexico. It is on his legacy that so many years of the “Good Neighbor Policy” pledged by Harry Truman during his 1948 visit to Mexico were based. During that visit to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the end of the war of with Mexico, Truman laid a wreath on the tomb of the Niños Heroes, the young cadets who gave their lives to protect that Mexican flag against the Yankee invaders. Their deaths marked a shameful episode which Lincoln acknowledged and sought to remedy, and one which Truman confirmed in his reconciliatory gesture.

A failure to teach the full and complex 19th century history of the U.S. and Mexico in U.S. classrooms has resulted in ignorance that helps feed anti-Mexico prejudice. Some textbooks today use terms such as “Westward Expansion,” which obscure how and why the U.S. used its military superiority to acquire nearly half of Mexico as a result of the war.

Most historians also gloss over Polk’s actions and how he misled Congress. The truth is in the Congressional Record and in battlefield journals, some of them stored in archives in both the U.S. and Mexico. To help educators and students learn from archival documents, the Lincoln and Mexico Project offers supplemental classroom materials including free lesson plans to interested teachers. In Texas, educators in 43 schools have received the materials for the coming academic year.

According to the College Board, each year about 500,000 students take the Advanced Placement U.S. history course. Recently, the board has approved teaching Lincoln “spot resolutions” as part of the course. Another 4 million 11th-graders are required to take some other form of U.S. history class each year.

Imagine the impact this next generation could have on the country if these students were to share this actual history, and what a fine model they would have of a Republican president who stood up for his neighbors in Mexico instead of castigating them, and who made amends for the expansionist exploits of the past.

In the final analysis, it is not facts that cause violence, but rhetoric based on ignorance. Much of the polarizing political words the president and others often use can be traced to a factually muddled 2012 blog post about the so-called Mexican invasion promoted by political commentator Pat Buchanan, who failed three times to win the Republican presidential nomination.

The fact is that the bulk of migration to our southern border today is people from Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras fleeing gang violence, agricultural damage and economic exploitation by corporations dating back centuries. But it was likely inflammatory rhetoric and ignorance that inspired the Dallas-area shooter to target Mexican-Americans and Mexican citizens during back-to-school shopping in El Paso. Hopefully, we can stop incidents like that from re-occurring by taking steps today to see that our children know the facts of history.

Finally, the recent recognition by the Texas Board of Education that contributions of Mexican-Americans to the culture and the history of Texas need to be included in the curriculum is another important step that is long overdue. Children need to see their Latino neighbors as significant contributors to the culture and economy of this state and the nation. It is a modest beginning but an essential one that will change mere tolerance to abiding respect.

Michael Hogan is a former professor of international relations at the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara and emeritus humanities chair at the American School Foundation. His new book is Abraham Lincoln and Mexico. He wrote this column for The Dallas Morning News.

How the Mexican-American War Began

Texas-Mexico border 1846

Map courtesy of Wikicommons

History has many examples of one nation trying to impose its will on other countries. One example is the Mexican-American War where many historians often ignore or distort details of what led the US Congress to declare war against Mexico on May 13, 1846.

After his election in 1844, on a platform that included Texas statehood, President Polk was determined to acquire the ports of San Francisco and San Diego along with vast portions of Mexico from the Pacific Ocean to Texas. However, Mexico repeatedly refused his offer of $25 million to buy California.

Official maps at that time showed the Texas border between the US and Mexico was the Nueces River that emptied into the Gulf of Mexico at Corpus Christi. In January of 1846, President Polk ordered US troops at Corpus Christi to move more than 100 miles south to the Rio Grande river where they began building fortifications that became Fort Brown near what is now Brownsville. Polk and his Secretary of War William Marcy believed that Mexico would consider the troop movement and fortifications an invasion of its territory and would feel pressured to comply with the expansionist desires of the United States to avoid further military action.

Polk had drafted a declaration of war and he called his cabinet members together on Saturday, May 8, to consult with them. At the end of the meeting, he decided to send his war message to the Congress on Tuesday, May 11. But later that same evening, he received word that 52 US troops had engaged a Mexican cavalry unit after entering a Mexican ranch on the Rio Grande on April 25. Several Americans were killed and a few were wounded in the short skirmish that lasted until early the next day, and which became known as The Thornton Affair for the name of the commanding officer.

The president quickly revised his war message to include his view about the significance of the battle, and sent the message to Congress on Monday, May 10. It asserted that Mexico “…has invaded our territory and shed blood of Americans upon the American soil.” The House expedited a war resolution and approved it on May 13 with only 14 dissenting votes, and the Senate concurred in a 40-2 vote. The US and Mexico were officially at war.

Declaring war against Mexico divided the country, as evidenced in leading newspapers of the time. Walt Whitman editorialized in support of the war, and volunteers responded to advertisements and posters stating the US government was offering recruits generous pay and 160 acres of land.

Mexican War(1)

Some prominent political leaders, including John Quincy Adams, opposed the war. Anti-war organizations denounced the war, particularly after news of the seven-day US naval bombardment at Veracruz that killed hundreds of civilians. After that incident, Henry David Thoreau refused to pay taxes to support the war, went to jail, and later published his famous essay “On Civil Disobedience.”

As a first-term congressman opposed to the war, Abraham Lincoln researched and presented his famous “Spot Resolutions” in Congress in 1847 and risked his political career by accusing Polk of lying to Congress about the basis for declaring war. Several times he challenged Polk to show him the spot where American blood was shed, implying that it was on Mexican soil and that the US soldiers were invaders. However, by then, Mexico City had already fallen to US troops and all that remained was a formal surrender and signing the Treaty of Guadalupe in February 1848 that officially established a new border stretching from San Diego to the mouth of the Rio Grande.

Ulysses S. Grant, an Army captain in the invasion and subsequent occupation of Mexico, used his memoirs to call the Mexican-American War “the most unjust war ever waged against a weaker nation by a stronger.”

Today’s textbooks use terms such as “Westward Expansion” and “Manifest Destiny” to obscure how and why the US used its military superiority to acquire nearly half of Mexico as a result of the war. The conquered Mexican territory included what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, along with parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Kansas. The US paid Mexico $18.5 million as reparations, less than what it offered for California before the war.

Most historians also gloss over Polk’s actions and how he misled the Congress. The truth is in the Congressional Record and in battlefield journals, some of them stored in archives in both the USA and Mexico. Only a few historians have tried to research the documents and present the facts.

The book Abraham Lincoln and Mexico by Michael Hogan, an historian/ educator in Guadalajara, Mexico, presents these facts and includes many of these archival documents in their entirety so educators and the public can understand the factual history of how the Mexican-American War began. It’s a great way to learn from the past and stimulate discussion of ways to move forward in relations between the USA and Mexico.

The print version of Dr. Hogan’s 2016 book is in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and in university and public libraries across the USA, and even in foreign countries. In the past two years, the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) has sent free print copies of the book to all members of the US Senate and distributed free copies of the eBook version to more than 400 educators in the USA, Mexico, and other countries as supplemental classroom material. Educators can request the free eBook by writing to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org.

More than 400 schools now have “Abraham Lincoln and Mexico” book


Historian/ Educator Michael Hogan with his Advanced Placement US History class that inspired him to research and write his book “Abraham Lincoln and Mexico”

During the past year, educators in more than 400 schools have received a copy of Abraham Lincoln and Mexico from the Lincoln and Mexico Project (LAMP) as supplemental classroom material. 

The book by historian/ educator Michael Hogan examines historical relations between the USA and Mexico in the 1840s-1860s by focusing on Abraham Lincoln’s support for Mexico as congressman and president. It’s great way for educators to stimulate classroom discussion because it includes archival documents that contain facts textbooks often distort or marginalize.

“It is an excellent resource for use in the classroom,” stated Professor Megan Lange of Santa Ana College in her online H-FedHist review praising the inclusion of primary source documents and Internet links for endnotes. “At just under two hundred pages of text Abraham Lincoln and Mexico is concise but minces no words and, in an era of ugly political rhetoric and wall building at the border, is ever so timely.”

LAMP provides the award-winning 2016 eBook version to classroom teachers at no cost for educational purposes, and to evaluate the content before ordering paid print versions for social studies courses. Several high schools and colleges are already using the book, and some high school educators have also requested the three-act student play as additional material along with lesson plans based on the book and the play. If you know an educator who might be interested in obtaining the free eBook without obligation, just send an email to lamp@lincolnandmexicoproject.org and we’ll follow up.

In the USA, the book is already in 390 schools in 39 states plus the District of Columbia. It’s also in another 22 international schools in Mexico, Bangladesh, Belarus, China, Egypt, Germany, Pago Pago, and South Korea. Here’s the list of schools with the book as of Feb. 28, 2019:



  1. Hoover High School, Hoover AL
  2. Judson College, Marion AL
  3. Lawrence County High School, Moulton AL
  4. Montgomery Public Schools, Montgomery AL
  5. Spain Park High School, Hoover AL
  6. Tuscaloosa County School District, Tuscaloosa AL
  7. Valley Head High School, Valley Head AL


  1. Academy of Tucson High School, Tucson AZ
  2. Girls Leadership Academy of Arizona, Phoenix AZ
  3. Horizon High School, Scottsdale AZ
  4. Rancho Solano Preparatory School, Scottsdale AZ
  5. Scottsdale Unified School District, Scottsdale AZ


  1. Bauxite Public Schools, Bauxite AR
  2. Bryant High School, Bryant AR
  3. Hope Public Schools, Hope AR
  4. Pulaski Academy, Little Rock AR


  1. Abraham Lincoln High School, San Diego CA
  2. Alice Margaret M. Bloomfield High School, Huntington Park CA
  3. Apple Valley Unified School District, Apple Valley CA
  4. BASIS Independent Silicon Valley, San Jose CA
  5. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona CA
  6. California State University-Channel Islands, Camarillo CA
  7. California State University-Dominguez Hills, Carson CA
  8. California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton CA
  9. California State University-Long Beach, Long Beach CA
  10. California State University-San Bernardino, San Bernardino CA
  11. California State University-San Marcos, San Marcos CA
  12. Chadwick School, Palos Verdes CA
  13. Chestnut High School, Huron CA
  14. Consumnes River College, Sacramento CA
  15. Coronado High School, Coronado CA
  16. Crestview Preparatory School, La Cañada CA
  17. Da Vinci Schools, Los Angeles CA
  18. JCS High School Academy, Temecula CA
  19. John F. Kennedy High School, Granada Hills CA
  20. La Quinta High School, La Quinta CA
  21. La Sierra University, Riverside CA
  22. Legend College Preparatory, Cupertino CA
  23. Long Beach College, Long Beach CA
  24. Long Beach Unified School District, Long Beach CA
  25. Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies, West Los Angeles
  26. Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles CA
  27. Los Angeles Valley College, Valley Glen CA
  28. Luther Burbank High School, Sacramento CA
  29. Making Waves Academy, Richmond CA
  30. Maranantha High School, Pasadena CA
  31. Marin Academy, San Rafael CA
  32. Marymount California University, Rancho Palos Verdes CA
  33. Mira Costa College, Oceanside CA
  34. Mira Mesa College, San Diego CA
  35. Mission Vista High School, Oceanside CA
  36. Moreno Valley Unified School District, Moreno Valley CA
  37. Newark Unified School District, Newark CA
  38. Northgate High School, Walnut Creek CA
  39. Palomar College, San Marcos CA
  40. Parajo Valley Unified School District, Watsonville CA
  41. Pasadena Independent School District, Pasadena CA
  42. Pinewood School, Los Altos CA
  43. Quarry Lane School, Dublin CA
  44. Rolling Hills Preparatory School, San Pedro CA
  45. Sacred Heart Schools, Atherton CA
  46. San Diego State University, San Diego CA
  47. San Diego Unified Public Schools District, San Diego CA
  48. Santa Ana College, Santa Ana CA
  49. Spirit Christian Academy, Tustin CA
  50. South East High School, South Gate CA
  51. Stockton Unified School District, Stockton CA
  52. Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista CA
  53. The Episcopal School of Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA
  54. The Webb Schools, Claremont CA
  55. Tilden Preparatory School, Albany CA
  56. Urban School of San Francisco, San Francisco CA
  57. Watsonville High School, Watsonville CA
  58. Woodbury University, Burbank CA


  1. Cherry Creek Schools, Greenwood Village CO
  2. Eaglecrest High School, Aurora CO
  3. Falcon School District 49, Colorado Springs CO
  4. Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs CO
  5. Poudre School District, Fort Collins CO
  6. Valor Christian High School, Highlands Ranch CO


  1. Amity Regional High School, Woodbridge CT
  2. Avon Old Farms School, Avon CT
  3. Berlin Public Schools, Berlin CT
  4. Chase Collegiate School, Waterbury CT
  5. Fairfield College Preparatory School, Fairfield CT
  6. Region 14 Schools, Woodbury CT
  7. Regional School District #10, Burlington CT
  8. Southington High School, Meriden CT
  9. Trinity College, Hartford CT
  10. Yale University, New Haven CT

District of Columbia

  1. American University, Washington DC
  2. KIPP DC College Preparatory Academy, Washington DC
  3. Maret School, Washington DC
  4. Sidwell Friends School, Washington DC
  5. Springarn Senior High School, Washington DC


  1. Appoquinimink School District, Odessa DE


  1. Boynton Beach Community High School, Boynton Beach FL
  2. Christopher Columbus High School, Miami FL
  3. Coral Reef Senior High School, Miami FL
  4. Cypress Creek High School, Orlando FL
  5. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton FL
  6. Hillsborough High School, Tampa FL
  7. Keys Gate Charter High School, Homestead FL
  8. Lyndon B. Johnson Middle School, Melbourne FL
  9. Manatee Technical College, Bradenton FL
  10. Miami Country Day School, Miami FL
  11. Ocoee High School, Ocoee FL
  12. Palm Beach Atlantic University, West Palm Beach FL
  13. Palmer Trinity School, Miami FL
  14. Polk County Public Schools, Bartow FL
  15. Port St. Lucie Public Schools, Port St. Lucie FL
  16. Suncoast Community High School, Riveria Beach FL
  17. Tenoroc High School, Lakeland FL


  1. Chattahoochee Technical College, Marietta GA
  2. Clayton State University, Morrow GA
  3. Cobb County Schools, Atlanta GA
  4. Dacula High School, Dacula GA
  5. Decatur High School, Decatur GA
  6. Georgia Cyber Academy, Atlanta GA
  7. Georgia Perimeter College, Atlanta GA
  8. Hart County High School, Hartwell GA
  9. Johns Creek High School, Johns Creek GA
  10. Lanier Technical College, Gainesville GA
  11. Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw GA
  12. North Springs Charter High School, Sandy Springs GA
  13. University of Georgia, Athens GA
  14. University of West Georgia, Carrollton GA


  1. Acero Schools, Chicago IL
  2. Benito Juarez Community Academy, Chicago IL
  3. Bogan Computer Technical High School, Chicago IL
  4. Bond County High School, Greenville IL
  5. Bunker Hill High School, Bunker Hill IL
  6. Chicago Bulls College Prep, Chicago IL
  7. Cristo Rey St. Martin College Prep, Waukegan, Chicago IL
  8. Daniel Hale Williams Prep School of Medicine, Chicago IL
  9. Dundee-Crown High School, Carpentersville IL
  10. Farragut Career Academy High School, Chicago IL
  11. Grayslake Central High School, Grayslake IL
  12. Heartland Community College, Normal IL
  13. Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Flossmoor IL
  14. Illinois State University, Bloomington/Normal IL
  15. Jones College Prep High School, Chicago IL
  16. Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago IL
  17. Marshall Metro High School, Chicago IL
  18. McClure Junior High School, Western Springs IL
  19. New Trier Township High School District, Winnetka IL
  20. Noble Network of Charter Schools, Chicago IL
  21. Saint Xavier University, Chicago IL
  22. Theodore Roosevelt High School, Chicago IL
  23. Walter Payton College Prep, Chicago IL


  1. Connections Academy, Indianapolis IN
  2. Franklin Central High School, Indianapolis IN
  3. Franklin Township Community School Corporation, Indianapolis IN
  4. Indiana University East, Richmond IN
  5. North Central High School, Indianapolis IN
  6. Tri-West Middle School, Lizton IN


  1. Iowa Falls-Alden High School, Iowa Falls IA
  2. Iowa Department of Education, Des Moines IA


  1. Seaman High School, Topeka KS
  2. Shawnee Mission West High School, Overland Park KS
  3. Wichita Public Schools-USD259, Wichita KS


  1. Bullit Central High School, Sherpherdsville, KY


  1. Ouachita Parish School District, West Monroe LA


  1. Sanford High School, Sanford ME


  1. Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore MD
  2. Franklin High School, Reistertown MD
  3. Old Mill High School, Millersville MD
  4. Prince Georges County Public Schools, Largo MD
  5. Suitland High School, Forestville MD
  6. The Academy of the Holy Cross, Kensington MD
  7. The Park School of Baltimore, Baltimore MD
  8. University of Maryland Graduate School, College Park MD
  9. U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis MD


  1. Abby Keller Foster Charter School, Worcester MA
  2. Auburn High School, Auburn MA
  3. Boston Community Leadership Academy, Boston MA
  4. Boston Latin School, Boston MA
  5. Boston Public Schools, Boston MA
  6. Boston Trinity Academy, Boston MA
  7. Boston University, Boston MA
  8. Brighton High School, Boston MA
  9. Burlington High School, Burlington MA
  10. Cambridge Public Schools, Cambridge MA
  11. Cardinal Spellman High School, Brockton MA
  12. Chelmsford High School, North Chelmsford MA
  13. Foxborough Regional Charter School, Foxborough MA
  14. Lawrence Public Schools, Lawrence MA
  15. Mary Lyon Pilot High School, Brighton MA
  16. Masconomet Regional High School, Boxord MA
  17. Newton South High School, Newton MA
  18. North Attleboro High School, North Attleboro MA
  19. Norwood Public Schools, Norwood MA
  20. Reading Memorial High School, Reading MA
  21. Southbridge High School, Southbridge MA
  22. Springfield Central High School, Springfield MA
  23. Summit Educational Group, Newton MA
  24. TechBoston Academy, Dorchester MA
  25. Wellesley High School, Wellesley MA


  1. Deerfield High School, Deerfield MI
  2. Lawrence Technology University, Southfield MI
  3. Michigan State University, East Lansing MI
  4. Muskegon Community College, Muskegon MI
  5. Saginaw Public School System, Saginaw MI


  1. Anoka-Hennepin Public Schools, Anoka MN
  2. Convent of the Visitation School, Mendota Heights MN
  3. Henry Sibley High School, Mendota Heights MN
  4. Macalester College, St. Paul MN
  5. North Lakes Academy Charter School, Forest Lake MN
  6. Michael-Albertville High School, St. Michael MN


  1. Alcorn State University, Lorman MS
  2. Forest High School, Forest MS
  3. Horn Lake High School, Horn Lake MS
  4. Jackson Public Schools, Jackson MS
  5. Kemper County High School, De Kalb MS
  6. Madison S Palmer High School, Marks MS


  1. Affton High School, St. Louis MO
  2. Central High School, Park Hills MO
  3. Columbia College, Columbia MO
  4. Gateway Science Academy, St. Louis MO
  5. Pembroke Hill School, Kansas City MO

New Hampshire

  1. Merrimack High School, Merrimack NH
  2. Southern New Hampshire University, Manchester NH

New Jersey

  1. Alvirne High School, Hudson NJ
  2. Bergen Catholic High School, Oradel NJ
  3. Bridgewater-Raritan Regional School District, Bridgewater NJ
  4. Patrick Healy Middle School, East Orange NJ
  5. Delbarton School, Morristown NJ
  6. Essex County College, Newark NJ
  7. High Technology High School, Lincroft NJ
  8. Lyndhurst High School, Lyndhurst NJ
  9. McNair Academic High School, Jersey City NJ
  10. Monsignor Donovan High School, Toms River NJ
  11. North Star Academy, Newark NJ
  12. Patterson Public Schools, Patterson NJ
  13. Wayne Hills High School, Wayne NJ

New Mexico

  1. Sandia Preparatory School, Albuquerque NM
  2. New Mexico Junior College, Hobbs NM
  3. New Mexico Connections Academy, Santa Fe NM

New York

  1. Archdiocese of New York Schools, New York NY
  2. Bellmore-Merrick Central High School District, North Merrick NY
  3. Buffalo Public Schools, Buffalo NY
  4. City Honors School, Buffalo NY
  5. Columbia University, Brooklyn NY
  6. Democracy Prep Public Schools, New York NY
  7. Richard Izquerido Health & Science Charter School, Bronx NY
  8. East Bronx Academy for the Future, New York NY
  9. Highland High School, Highland NY
  10. High School for Environmental Studies, New York, NY
  11. Lawrence Woodmere Academy, Woodmere NY
  12. Liberation Diploma Plus High School, Brooklyn NY
  13. Manhattan Village Academy, New York NY
  14. Mott Hall Bronx High School, Bronx NY
  15. New Dorp High School, Staten Island NY
  16. New Visions for Public Schools, Bronx NY
  17. New York City College of Technology, New York NY
  18. New York City Department of Education, New York NY
  19. New York University, New York NY
  20. Preston High School, Bronx NY
  21. The New School, New York NY
  22. Unatego Central School District, Unatego NY
  23. World Journalism Preparatory School, Queens NY

North Carolina

  1. Apex High School, Apex NC
  2. Bertie County Schools, North Windsor NC
  3. Community School of Davidson, Davidson NC
  4. Davidson Day School, Davidson NC
  5. East Carolina University, Greenville NC
  6. Guilford County Schools, Greensboro NC
  7. Jack Britt High School, Fayetteville NC
  8. Johnston County Early College Academy, Smithfield NC
  9. Mecklenburg Area Catholic Schools, Charlotte NC
  10. Philo-Hill Magnet Academy, Winston-Salem NC
  11. Pitt County Schools, Greenville NC
  12. Wingate Andrews High School, High Point NC
  13. University of North Carolina, Charlotte NC


  1. Albert Einstein Academy, Cleveland OH
  2. Beachwood High School, Beachwood OH
  3. Cristo Rey Columbus High School, Columbus OH
  4. Cleveland Metropolitan School District, Cleveland OH
  5. Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH
  6. Delaware Area Career Center, Delaware OH
  7. John Glenn High School, New Concord OH
  8. Kent State University at Stark, North Canton OH
  9. Lake Ridge Academy, North Ridgeville OH
  10. North Olmstead High School, North Olmstead OH
  11. Ohio State University-Newark Campus, Newark OH
  12. Springfield City School District, Springfield OH
  13. Strongsville City Schools, Strongsville OH
  14. University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande OH
  15. Westlake High School, Westlake OH


  1. Dallas School District, Dallas OR
  2. Gresham-Barlow School District, Gresham OR


  1. Central Bucks High School East, Buckingham PA
  2. Central Dauphin School District, Harrisburg PA
  3. Chester Senior High School, Chester PA
  4. Cristo Rey Philadelphia High School, Philadelphia PA
  5. Community College of Allegheny County-South Campus, West Mifflin PA
  6. Conestoga Valley School District, Lancaster PA
  7. Delaware County Christian School, Newton Square PA
  8. Democracy Prep Public Schools, Morrisville PA
  9. Harrisburg School District, Harrisburg PA
  10. Haverford School, Haverford PA
  11. Manheim Township School District, Lancaster PA
  12. Middletown Area High School, Middletown PA
  13. Milton Hershey School, Hershey PA
  14. Lebanon School District, Mt. Lebanon PA
  15. Northern Lebanon High School, Fredericksburg PA
  16. Pennsylvania Leadership Charter School, West Chester PA
  17. Reading Public Schools, Reading PA
  18. Shady Side Academy, Allison Park PA
  19. Springside Chestnut Hill Academy, Philadelphia PA
  20. Tredyffrin/Easttown School District, Wayne PA
  21. U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, Carlisle Barracks PA
  22. William Tennet High School, Warminster PA

Rhode Island

  1. Brown University, Providence RI
  2. Rogers High School, Newport RI

South Carolina

  1. C. Flora High School, Columbia SC
  2. Chester Senor High School, Chester SC
  3. Clover School District, Clover SC
  4. Lexington County School District, Lexington SC
  5. Senaca High School, Senaca SC
  6. Winthrop University, Rock Hill SC

South Dakota

  1. Pierre School District, Pierre SD
  2. S. Riggs High School, Pierre SD


  1. Dickson County High School, Dickson TN
  2. KIPP Memphis Collegiate Schools, Memphis TN
  3. Middletown High School, Middletown TN
  4. Power Center Academy High School, Memphis TN
  5. Rutherford County Board of Education, Murfreesboro TN
  6. Sequatchie County High School, Dunlap TN


  1. Alba-Golden ISD, Alba TX
  2. Anna ISD, Anna TX
  3. Aransas County ISD, Rockport TX
  4. Austin Community College-Pinnacle Campus, Austin TX
  5. Brookhaven College, Farmers Branch TX
  6. Cypress-Fairbanks ISD, Houston TX
  7. Dallas Independent School District, Irving TX
  8. Floresville ISD, Floresville TX
  9. Flower Mound High School, Flower Mound TX
  10. Floydada High School, Floydada TX
  11. Goodrich Independent School District, Goodrich TX
  12. Houston Community College, Houston TX
  13. Houston ISD, Houston TX
  14. International Leadership of Texas-Garland Campus, Garland TX
  15. KIPP Houston Public Schools, Houston TX
  16. Klein Oak High School, Spring TX
  17. Lake Belton Middle School, Belton TX
  18. Lamar CISD, Rosenberg TX
  19. Lone Star Community College-Kingwood, Kingwood TX
  20. McMurry University, Abilene TX
  21. Martin High School, Arlington TX
  22. Meridan World School, Round Rock TX
  23. Northside ISD, San Antonio TX
  24. North Texas University, Dallas TX
  25. Pasadena Independent School District, Pasadena TX
  26. Plano ISD, Plano TX
  27. L. Turner High School, Carrollton TX
  28. Round Rock ISD, Round Rock TX
  29. Sam Houston State University, Huntsville TX
  30. San Angelo ISD, San Angelo TX
  31. Spring ISD, Houston TX
  32. Agnes Academy, Houston TX
  33. Stephens Episcopal School, Austin TX
  34. Terrill Independent School District, Terrell TX
  35. Texas A&M University, San Antonio TX
  36. Trinity Valley School, Ft. Worth TX
  37. University of Houston-Downtown, Houston TX
  38. University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX
  39. University of Texas-El Paso, El Paso TX
  40. Uplift Education Charter Schools, Irving TX
  41. YES Prep Public Schools, Houston TX


  1. Nebo School District, Spanish Fork UT
  2. Rowland Hall, Salt Lake City UT


  1. Chantilly High School, Chantilly VA
  2. Collegiate School, Richmond VA
  3. Fairfax County Public Schools, Arlington VA
  4. Gar-Field High School, Woodbridge VA
  5. George Mason University, Fairfax VA
  6. Highland Springs High School, Highland Springs VA
  7. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA
  8. Johnson-Williams Middle School, Berryville VA
  9. McLean High School, McLean VA
  10. Miller School of Albemarle, Charlottesville VA
  11. Patriot High School, Nokesville VA
  12. Pulaski County High School, Dublin VA
  13. Stonewall Jackson High School, Quicksburg VA
  14. University of Virginia Center for Politics, Charlottesville VA


  1. Kent School District, Kent WA
  2. Northshore School District, Bothell WA


  1. Viterbo College, La Crosse WI
  2. Waukesha South High School, Waukesha WI


  1. American School of Durango, Durango MX
  2. American School Foundation of Guadalajara, Guadalajara MX
  3. American School Foundation of Mexico City MX
  4. American School Foundation of Monterrey, Monterrey MX
  5. American School of Puerto Vallarta, Puerto Vallarta MX
  6. Colegio Columbia, Tampico MX
  7. Colegio Ingles Americano, Monterrey MX
  8. Cornerstone Academy, Guadalajara MX
  9. Instituto Thomas Jefferson, Guadalajara MX
  10. International School of Cancun, Cancun MX
  11. The American School of Querétaro, Querétaro MX
  12. Peterson Schools, Mexico City MX
  13. San Roberto International School, Monterrey MX
  14. Westhill Institute, Mexico City MX


  1. Capital International Schools, Cairo, Egypt
  2. Frankfurt International School, Oberusel, Germany
  3. Hangzhou International School, Hangzhou City, China
  4. Monno International School, Monno City, Bangladesh
  5. Quality Schools International-Minsk, Minsk, Belarus
  6. Nu’Uuli VoTech High School, Pago Pago
  7. Cheonga Dalton School, Cheonga, South Korea
  8. SMIC Private School-Shanghai, Shanghai, China